SOCIAL HOUSING FOR COMPANHIA DE DESENVOLVIMIENTO HABITACIONAL E URBANO DO ESTADO DE SAO PAULO, BRASIL (CDHU)
The assignment arises from a first prize in the category of sobrados (2-story housing) at an competition organized by the CDHU (housing development Company of the State of Sao Paulo), in which new sustainable typologies of social interest are managed. The great challenge, before the volume of demand, was to upturn the housing, improving the "typological patterns" that are repited on a large scale, because in Sao Paulo there are 1500 favelas, and 3 million people living in the 'informal city' often in precarious situations.
The competition asked for, not only allowing, but encouraging with the proposal, the flexibility and the future expansion of the program to be performed by the user as a real need in the way of living of the inhabitants of the favela, led by strong social and family relationships that surely will adapt to their new home. To achieve this goal, a typology was developed with a versatile and flexible distribution, and allowed changes, modifications and extensions. We studied dozens of opportunities of side subsequent extensions, etc. In a parallel analysis of costs, we developed a solution in which an initial investment of 4-5%, leaving a structure planned, extensions of between 20 and 40% of the surface of the housing is favored. We managed to optimize the construction period and get the most out of the resources used with minimum housing program. On the other side from the responsibility with the city also it managed to keep this "simple and basic" order even when the houses were changing.
The proposal achieves advantages for its prefabricated implantation in large scale and with short construction periods. The facades, structure and roof are solved with 19 prefabricated panels, none heavier than 6.5 tonnes, that can be covered in 3 days (1 for foundation, second to the 10 pieces of ground floor and 1st floor and the third for the remaining 9 rooms including the roof) and the house is finished in 15 days, incorporating the facilities in the panels from the factory. Another advantage of the solution is that it incorporates acoustic and thermal insulation inside the facade and roof.
We have thought in a number of 1,000,000 square meters of prefabricated concrete for roughly 4,500 houses. A manufacturer can produce daily about 350 m2, which would be a house and a half with one floor. For more than 450 houses it is profitable to build a new plant, 90 m2 each truck carrying prefabricated slabs. 30-40 tons of prefabricated can be built per team, about 120 m2 per day, taking the 225 m2 (19 pieces) in two days. In this way between 2 and 2.5 houses per day are achieved, and therefore 1000 housing units per year using one prefabrication plant (about 35 people) and 4-6 assembly teams (8-12 people).
Location: Sao Paulo, Brazil
Architects: José María de Lapuerta, Paloma Campo, Carlos Arcos
Partners: Fernando Botton, Alberto Garcia Jimenez, Beatriz Martinez Gonzalez, Elena Tejeiro Medina, Guillermo Sicre Vara de Rey, Jeremy King, Jorge Romera Herrero, Luis Moranta Sastre, Magdalena Sakowicz, Marta Renom Carbonell and Rodrigo Rieiro Diaz
Promoter: CDHU Brazil